The installimage script provided by Hetzner is an easy and fast method of installing various Linux distributions.
You can run installimage directly from the Rescue System on your server. It's menu interfaces makes it easy to select the Linux distribution you want. You have full control over the how to partition your drive(s). And you can use a simple editor to define how you want to use software RAID and LVM.
To use installimage, you first need to activate the Rescue System and then boot into it Rescue System.
Use the password displayed on Robot to log into the Rescue System as "root". Then type installimage to start the installimage script:
root@rescue ~ # installimage
In the following menu, you should see:
After choosing an image, you will receive a note that the editor will be started, and this will open the configuration file.
Midnight Commander (mcedit) is used as editor.
Before starting the installation please check if the server has a hardware RAID controller. If so please create the desired RAID before installing the operating system via installimage. You can find more information on the respective articles:
If your server has already an operating system installed it is advised to stop currently active software RAIDs and delete the current partitions to prevent possible issues during the installation.
To stop all software RAID arrays you can use the following command:
mdadm --stop /dev/md/*
To wipe the partition table off all your drives you can use this command:
# for SATA drives: wipefs -fa /dev/sd* # for NVMe drives: wipefs -fa /dev/nvme*n1
We offer a number of standard images that you can use. These are typically the latest version of the particular distribution.
Advanced users can also install older versions of these distributions, by going to the
old_images folder. Important note: We don't offer any support for these older images.
In addition, advanced users can also create their own OS images and install them. Please check the guide on how to install your own OS images for information on how this is possible and for a list of the requirements.
installimage finds an
/autosetup file in the Rescue System, it will automatically use this as the configuration file. Unless there are errors in the files, you will not see a menu and or editor.
You can adjust the following variables to customize the installation.
The drives that are present in the server are identified in the first row with the variable DRIVE. Above each line, you can see the type of drive.
Here, you can select which drives you want the OS to be installed on. The drives will be completely wiped, and all data currently on them will be lost.
If you want to leave a drive in its current state and not make any changes to it, you can leave it out (remove it) by placing a
# before it. Important note: Doing this means that you need to properly adjust the number after the next DRIVE variable.
# SSDSC2BB480G4 #DRIVE1 /dev/sda # SSDSC2BB480G4 DRIVE1 /dev/sdb
If the server has multiple drives, you can use the variables
SWRAIDLEVEL to create different software RAID levels. Any software RAID levels are always applied to all drives. (That means drives marked with DRIVE, as discussed above.) drives. If you don't want software RAID on a particular drive, you'll need to remove it accordingly.
The script can create software RAID with levels 0, 1, 5, 6 or 10.
The bootloader Grub is pre-configured. (In the past we also offered Lilo). Depending on the operating system, GRUB2 or GRUB1 (legacy Grub) is installed.
HOSTNAME sets the corresponding host name in the system.
The installimage also supports adjustments to the partitioning scheme (including the use of LVM). You can find the designated syntax in the examples in the editor.
This is the full path to the operating system image; you only need to specify it if you are installing a custom image.
After leaving the editor with F10 (save and quit), the syntax of the config file is checked. Should it contain errors, you will be returned to the editor.
If you see this output after 1-5 minutes (depending on the image and partitioning you're using), the system is ready and bootable.
The root password is set to the current password of the Rescue System.
reboot in the Rescue System,
root@rescue ~ # reboot
the newly installed system is booted and you can log in with the previous Rescue System password.
When installing Debian or Ubuntu using the installimage script, the times for the cronjob in
/etc/cron.d/mdadmare set randomly.
When installing Ubuntu 20.04 or 18.04 images XFS partitions can not be created using the latest Rescue System. In order to use XFS with those images you need to use the "old" Rescue System.
You can create partitions larger than 2TiB only with a GUID partition table (GPT). Thus, you can only install operating systems which include GRUB2; it supports booting from GPT drives.
Re-run the installation. If you get the same error again, please send the complete screen output and the contents of the file
/root/debug.txt to email@example.com.
all in the config file means use the rest of the available space on the drive. Since partitions are created one after another, the partition table will end after using
all because there will be no space available afterwards. Of course, it is also possible not to use "all" at all.
Press 'Escape' and then
0. In most cases, this has the same effect as F10.
The scripts were written by developers of Hetzner Online GmbH, who maintain and extend them. The scripts are written in bash and are available in the rescue system. You can modify and use them freely. Hetzner Online GmbH assumes no liability for any damage caused by changing the scripts and excludes any support for guides that include changes to the script.
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